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APA

Page history last edited by Benjamin L. Stewart, PhD 4 years, 10 months ago

APA Survival Guide

 

 

 This video below targets both English language learners and pre/in-service English language educators:

 

 


 

Additional Resources

 


 

APA Notes

 

APA and More for the EFL/ESL Writer 

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

 

 

Reasons for recording this talk

  • Source for other EFL/ESL writers

  • Possible source for discourse analysis project

  • Possible source for interpreting practice

  • To get possible feedback from others on how they teach or use APA.

Why?

(accidental vs. intentional) Plagiarism and self-plagiarism

 

What?

  • Manuscript structure and content

    • Title page, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references, appendices

  • Writing clearly and concisely

  • Mechanics of style

  • Crediting sources

  • APA Survival Guide

  • UAA Virtual Library (licensed databases): EBSCO Host, ebary (books), GALE, etc.

  • UAA Virtual Library (open access)

  • Google Scholar, Google Books, Boolean search

  • Original idea (which should account for most of one’s writing) vs. one that is not (and is not common knowledge); Non-original ideas (that require citations) should support original ideas

  • Ideas that are not original and are not common knowledge

    • Direct quote

      • No more than 15% of total text

      • Include page or paragraph number(s)

      • Quote only text that is interesting or unique...use sparingly

 

According to Smith (2013), “all teachers should get raises based on merit” (p. 3).

According to Smith (2013), “all teachers should get raises based on merit” (para. 3).

“All teachers should get raises based on merit” (Smith, 2013, para. 3).

 

  • Paraphrase

    • Capturing someone else’s idea but in your own words (use correct grammar)

    • The preferred way of citing someone else

    • No page/paragraph number required

 

Educators use merit pay to constitute raises (Smith, 2013).

Educators use merit pay to constitute raises (Smith, 2013).

 

  • Introduction paragraph

    • Hook: quote, question, or interesting and related statistic or fact

    • Context of the problem, historical context, etc.

    • Thesis statement

  • Body paragraph

    • MEAL plan: main idea (topic sentence), evidence, analysis, and link (or summary)

    • Typically, the first and last sentences of a body paragraph do not have citations.

    • The topic sentence is typically the hardest sentence to get write.

  • Conclusion paragraph

    • Restate thesis statement (Paraphrase the same idea from the thesis statement in the introduction.).

    • Explain the significance, big picture, how it relates to other contexts, etc.

    • Closing statement

  • Editing

    • Writing is a process, so expect to write to understand first, and write to be understood second.

    • When you have completed the first draft, do a side-by-side comparison of the thesis statement in the introduction (last sentence) with the restated thesis statement in the conclusion (first sentence).  Are you saying the exact same thing but with different words?

    • Once you have aligned the two thesis statements, compare them with each of the topic sentences from each of the body paragraphs.  Is there unity and coherence in the topic sentences with regard to the thesis statements?

    • Once topic sentences are aligned, review supporting sentences in each of the body paragraphs to assure unity, coherence, and cohesion.

      • Unity:  Supporting sentences are all on topic.

      • Coherence: There is a logical order in which ideas are being presented: chronological order, general to the specific, specific to the general, largest to smallest, smallest to largest, logical process, etc.

      • Cohesion: Make sure ideas flow from one sentence to the next.  Check theme/rheme patterns and sentence connectors to make sure that new information is being supported by old information from one sentence to the next.

  • Miscellaneous

    • Active voice is preferred (use passive voice sparingly)

    • Avoid certain constructions (words, idiomatic multi-word units, lexemes, etc.) so not to overuse and to allow for more descriptive and interesting writing.

      • very; important; it is important, necessary, essential, etc., always, never, prove etc. (absolutes); overusing the verb to be; it was found, seen, determined, etc. (non-referential it with the passive voice);  Topic sentences: strong subject and any verb except the verb to be - avoid there is/there are; use there is/there are sparingly;  

    • Avoid the three most common types of writing errors: run-on sentences, sentence fragments, and comma splices.

    • Avoid capitalizing words as a way to emphasize text.

    • Only headings are in bold

    • Use Times New Roman, font size 12 throughout.

    • When citing, focus more on concepts than on the authors.

    • Alphabetize references based on authors last names, and avoid using bullet points.

    • Make sure websites are valid, reliable, and unbiased.

    • 0.5 inch paragraph indentations: all paragraphs except abstract

    • Double space, allowing equal spacing between individual lines, paragraphs, and headings.

    • Don’t use more than three level headings.  In some cases, only two level headings will be adequate.  There has to be enough information to warrant a heading, but also use enough headings to keep your work organized.  There is a balance.

    • Text is left-justified, one-inch margins all the way around (top, bottom, left, and right).

  • References (examples).

    • Books: Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society. London, England: Harvard University Press.

    • Book chapter: Potter, J. (2012). Discursive psychology and discourse analysis. In J.P. Gee & M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 104-119). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Articles: Conlin, S. & Stirrat, R. (2008). Current challenges in development evaluation. Evaluation, 14(2), 193-208. doi:10.1177/1356389007087539

    • Website: Smith, S. (2013) (n.d.). Title of the page. Title of the website. Retrieved from [add link]

Here is an example of how references should be listed (in alphabetical order).

References

 

Conlin, S. & Stirrat, R. (2008). Current challenges in development evaluation. Evaluation, 14(2), 193-208. doi:10.1177/1356389007087539

 

Potter, J. (2012). Discursive psychology and discourse analysis. In J.P. Gee & M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 104-119). New York, NY: Routledge.

 

Smith, S. (n.d.). Title of the page. Title of the website. Retrieved from [add link]

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. London, England: Harvard University Press.

 

How?

Book recommendations: The Literature Review (Machi & McEvoy), The Little Brown Compact Handbook, and The Craft of Research

Teacher APA as a separate course or throughout the major?

Online support: APA survival guide, The Purdue Online Writing Lab

Share with teachers so there is a common understandings about APA

 

 

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